Metallurgy yÄ›jÄ«n metallurgy metallurgy is the process and process of extracting metal or metal compound from ore and using metal to make metal with certain properties by various processing methods. Metallurgical definition metallurgy yÄ›jÄ«n ã€–metallurgyã€— Metallurgy metallurgy is the process and process of extracting metal or metal compound from ore and using metal to make metal with certain properties by various processing methods.
An overview of the history of metallurgy 3 to 4 billion years ago, the earth was born in the universe. The universe is like a high-temperature smelting furnace, which concentrates the reduced metal toward the center, sinks in the center of the earth to become the core (Fe, Ni metal melt), and then forms a sulfide layer (melting) on â€‹â€‹the surface of the metal, and then forms on the surface. The oxide layer (slag) finally encloses an atmosphere (equivalent to a temperature and pressure atmosphere) on the outer surface of the metal melt and slag, so that the earth on which humans depend for formation is formed. Then God created everything on earth and created humanity. God is really too fond of human beings. He not only gives various things that human beings depend on, but he also allows humans to learn to think and use tools, so that human beings become masters of the destiny of all things in the world (only refers to the earth). . Humans have long learned how to get what they need from nature. From the Stone Age to the subsequent Bronze Age, to the large-scale development of modern steel smelting. The history of human development has merged with the development of metallurgy. With the successful application of physical chemistry in metallurgy, metallurgy has moved from technology to science, so there is a metallurgical engineering specialty in the university.
Pyrometallurgy is a metallurgical process carried out under high temperature conditions. Some or all of the minerals in the ore or concentrate undergo a series of physical and chemical changes at high temperatures to form another form of compound or element, which is enriched in gas, liquid or solid products to achieve the desired metal and vein. The purpose of separation of stone and other impurities. The heat energy required to achieve the pyrometallurgical process is usually supplied by fuel combustion, and is also dependent on the chemical reaction in the process. For example, the oxidative roasting and smelting of sulfide ore does not require heating by the fuel; the metal thermal reduction process is also Heated. Metallurgical furnace pyrometallurgy includes: drying, baking, roasting, smelting, refining, distillation, etc.
Hydrometallurgy is a metallurgical process carried out in solution. The hydrometallurgical temperature is not high, generally lower than!, the high temperature and high pressure process in modern hydrometallurgy, the temperature is also around $$$$$$$, and in some cases the temperature can reach %. Hydrometallurgy includes processes such as leaching, purification, and metal preparation. 1. Leaching The ore or concentrate is treated with a suitable solvent so that the metal to be extracted enters the solution in the form of an ion (cation or complex anion), and the gangue and other impurities are not dissolved. Such a process is called leaching. After leaching, it is subjected to sedimentation and filtration to obtain a metal (ion)-containing leachate and an insoluble residue (leaching residue) composed of gangue minerals. For some hard-to-lead ores or concentrates, it is often necessary to perform a preliminary treatment prior to leaching to convert the extracted metal into a compound or salt that is easily leached. For example, sulfation roasting, etc., which is converted to a soluble sulfate, is a common preparatory treatment method. 1. Purification During the leaching process, some metal or non-metallic impurities are often introduced into the solution along with the extracted metal. The process of removing these impurities from the solution is called purification. 2. The process of extracting metal from the purification liquid by means of replacement, reduction, electrowinning, etc. of the metal.
Electrometallurgy is a method of extracting metals using electrical energy. According to the difference in the use of electrical energy effects, electrometallurgy is divided into electro-thermometallurgy and electro-chemical metallurgy. 1. Electrothermal metallurgy is a method of converting electricity into heat for smelting. In the process of electro-thermal metallurgy, according to the physical and chemical changes, the difference from the pyrometallurgical process is not significant. The main difference between the two is that the source of heat energy is different only during the smelting. 2. Electrochemical metallurgy (electrolysis and electrowinning) is the use of an electrochemical reaction to precipitate a metal from a solution or melt containing a metal salt. The former is called solution electrolysis, such as electrolytic refining of antimony and electrowinning of zinc, which can be included in hydrometallurgy; the latter is called molten salt electrolysis, which not only utilizes the chemical effect of electric energy, but also uses electric energy to convert into thermal energy. Heating metal salts to make them into a melt can also be included in pyrometallurgy. The production process for extracting metals from ores or concentrates is often a process involving both a fire process and a wet process, even if it is a fire-based process, such as the smelting of a vulcanized pot concentrate, and finally There is also a need for a wet electrolytic refining process; in wet zinc smelting, the zinc sulfide concentrate also requires high temperature oxidative roasting to pretreat the raw materials.
Classification of metallurgical industry: Metallurgical industry can be divided into black metallurgical industry and non-ferrous metallurgical industry. Black metallurgy mainly refers to the production of pig iron, steel and iron alloys (such as ferrochrome, ferromanganese, etc.). Nonferrous metallurgy refers to the latter including all other various Production of metal. In addition, metallurgy can be divided into black metallurgical industry, non-ferrous metallurgical industry, rare metal metallurgical industry and powder metallurgy industry.
The development of China's metallurgical industry refers to the industrial sector of exploration, mining, selection, smelting, and rolling of metal minerals, including the ferrous metallurgical industry and the non-ferrous metallurgical industry. It is an important raw material industrial sector. The provision of metallic materials by various sectors of the national economy is also the material basis for economic development.
Over the past 50 years since the founding of New China, the steel industry has developed rapidly. While developing steel industry in coastal cities such as Dalian, Tianjin and Shanghai, a number of large-scale steel and iron alloys, refractory materials and other auxiliary raw materials enterprises have been built in Baotou, Taiyuan, Wuhan, Chongqing and Panzhihua in the Mainland. At the same time as the development of the black metallurgical industry, China's non-ferrous metal smelting and processing industry developed rapidly. Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Shandong, Henan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Gansu and other places have successively built a number of large alumina plants, electrolytic aluminum plants and aluminum materials. Processing factory. Large-scale non-ferrous metal production bases have also been established in Hunan, Jiangxi, Guizhou and Guangxi.
In 2007, the industrial added value of China's non-ferrous metals industry (calculated at comparable prices) increased by 18.7% compared with 2006, an increase of 0.2 percentage points higher than the increase in industrial added value of enterprises above designated size.
In 2007, China's steel industry achieved remarkable results in terms of rapid growth, structural optimization, efficiency improvement, and energy conservation in the international steel industry. The production of crude steel was 489,240,800 tons, an increase of 66,252,200 tons over the previous year, an increase of 15.66%; the production of iron was 46,944,300 tons, an increase of 6189.22 over the previous year, showing a relatively rapid growth trend. In the first quarter of 2008, China's steel products exports fell by 19.3% year-on-year, but the export value increased by 7.6% year-on-year.
The level of science and technology in China's metallurgical industry is strengthening, and the voice of "big and weak" has been lowered. China should improve the level of science and technology in the metallurgical industry by raising one step. The safety of metallurgical industry should be highly valued. Comprehensive measures should be taken to solve safety problems, and we must constantly work hard. To perfect the standards of China's metallurgical industry, in a certain sense, it is to solve the smelting construction safety standard system to ensure the healthy development of the industry.
In the future, China's non-ferrous metals industry should make full use of domestic and foreign non-ferrous metal renewable resources, and greatly increase the recycling of renewable resources. The main non-ferrous metals, copper, aluminum, lead and zinc will be recycled to 6.5 million tons in 2020. The utilization of metals reached 12 million tons, accounting for 40% of the total, and the recycling capacity of renewable resources was significantly enhanced.
In the next three years, China's steel industry will see the best development opportunity period driven by domestic demand; the actual demand growth of China's steel products will maintain an average annual growth rate of 7.57%. It is expected that the Central South region will become the region with the most potential demand for steel products in China in the future. WISCO and Angang are the enterprises that benefit most from the downstream industry. The future will change, the proportion of demand in the construction industry and the resource and energy industry will decline, while the proportion of demand in the machinery, light industry and automotive industries will increase.
Professional Name: Metallurgical Technology
Professional training objectives: to train senior technical application professionals who master metallurgical knowledge and engage in production, design and management in the metallurgical field.
Professional core competence: smelting process design capability, metal material analysis and testing capability, foundry production management capability
Professional core courses and main practice links: physical chemistry, metallurgy, metallurgical transmission principle, metallurgical principle, iron and steel metallurgy, non-ferrous metallurgy, metalworking practice, production practice, cognitive practice, metallurgical transmission principle, metallurgical physical chemistry, smelting industry, Mineral phase lithofacies structure analysis, curriculum design, graduation design, etc., as well as the main characteristics of the schools and practice links
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