Summary of plastic related knowledge - introduction of plasticizers, heat stabilizers

Plasticizers are the largest class of additives in terms of quantity, yield and consumption of plastic additives. At present, the global plasticizer production capacity is about 7.5 million tons/year, and the global global plasticizer production is 5.9 million tons/year, including 22% in North America, 38% in Asia Pacific, 25% in Europe, and 15% in other regions. . PVC is the largest user of plasticizers, accounting for 95% of the total global plasticizer use, and slightly higher than 90% in North America. The amount of plasticizer used in polyolefins, styrene, engineering plastics, polyvinyl butyral and cellulose is small. In the plasticizer market, phthalates accounted for 69% of the total, followed by aliphatics accounting for 8%, epoxys accounting for 7%, triglycerides accounting for 4%, and others accounting for 2%.

Because plasticizers are closely related to the very mature soft PVC market, they are slow to develop, but they are maintaining steady growth. They are expected to grow at an average annual rate of 2.5% and reach 6.1 million tons by 2009.

At present, the production trend of plasticizers has become large-scale, continuous, and computer-controlled, and the production capacity of a single set has reached 100,000 tons/year. The multi-variety series production has the characteristics of strong market adaptability and large production flexibility to meet the demand for different functional plasticizers of different plastic processed products. Due to the better price/performance ratio of DOP, the yield and consumption still dominate the o-dicarboxylates, followed by DINP (diisodecyl phthalate), DIDP (diisononyl phthalate), and The development of chain alcohol esters is also very fast and is expected to become an important variety of phthalates. In addition to phthalate plasticizers, fatty acid esters with excellent cold resistance, epoxy esters with low toxicity and stability, high temperature resistant trimellitic acid esters, non-migrating polyesters, and flame retardant Good phosphate esters and the like all occupy a certain proportion in the plasticizer structure, forming a rational plasticizer production system.

Heat stabilizers. Heat stabilizer is one of the important categories in plastic processing aids. The heat stabilizer is synchronous with the birth and development of PVC resin. It is mainly used in the processing of PVC resin. Therefore, the ratio of heat stabilizer to PVC resin and soft and hard products in PVC has close relationship. At present, the annual global consumption is about 500,000 tons. The main varieties are lead salts, organotins, metal soaps, composite stabilizers and organic additives. The consumption structure of heat stabilizers varies from country to country. In the United States, composite stabilizers account for 40%-50% of total consumption, and organotin accounts for nearly 40%. Among the heat stabilizers, cadmium-free, low-lead, dust-free and replace lead salts have become the development focus of the industry. The strict requirements of environmental protection regulations are driving the change of heat stabilizers. In order to protect the living environment of human beings, many countries have adopted laws to limit the application of toxic heavy metals in PVC processing. European PVC heat stabilizer manufacturers have made a commitment to reduce the use of lead-containing heat stabilizers by half in 2010 and lead-free in 2015. Many countries in Europe are using organotin based or calcium-zinc based alternatives. The use of lead stabilizers in Europe will decrease from 120,000 tons/year in 1999 to 80,000 tons/year in 2010. The demand for lead-containing heat stabilizers in the Asia-Pacific region is also expected to drop significantly. New stabilizers, including organotin based systems (OBS), have been widely used in the United States.

Barricades are obstacles that block road traffic. They can refer to barriers used as fences during road construction, oil pressure security barricades to prevent terrorist attacks outside important building doors, or roadblocks temporarily constructed by demonstrators during large-scale demonstrations.
The use of barricades may have originated from the turbulent Paris of the 16th century. Under the rule of King Henry III, the lives of the French people were hard. The supporters of the Duke of Guise took to the streets on May 12, 1588, and built roadblocks , History called "First Day of the Barricades". For the next two centuries, roadblocks played an extremely important role in major social movements in France.
Rejection is a type of motorized roadblock. In ancient China, setting up long guns or matching wooden poles to create obstacles to defend against the attack of enemy cavalry is called "rejecting carbines". The three intersecting and intersecting, fixed with iron as the "distant gu solid refusal carbine". A large wooden bar, with different lengths of wood, wears nine to ten iron guns, which is called a "close guard antler". Similar fortifications exist in the West.
Modern refusal horses are instead composed of iron frames and barbed wire, so it is also called "iron refusal horses" and has a wider range of uses. In addition to its military use, it will also be used in the riot operation. It has the effect of isolating and blocking people and vehicles. In addition, some modern horse-rejecting horses are also designed with walking wheels and strong maneuverability, which can be completed in a short time by 2 to 4 people. However, due to its light weight, short piles are sometimes added to the ground.

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